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  • Sist endret: 27.06.2014

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Dette dokumentet er basert på det profesjonelle dokumentet "Fekal inkontinens" i Norsk Elektronisk Legehåndbok. Referanselisten for dette dokumentet vises nedenfor.

Referanser

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  2. Nygaard I, Barber MD, Burgio KL et al. Prevalence of symptomatic pelvic floor disorders in US women. JAMA 2008; 300: 1311-6. JAMA
  3. Macmillan AK, Merrie AEH, Marshall RJ, Parry BR. The prevalence of fecal incontinence in community-dwelling adults: a systematic review of the literature. Dis Colon Rectum 2004; 47: 1341-9. PubMed
  4. Norderval S, Nsubuga D, Bjelke C et al. Anal incontinence after obstetric sphincter tears: incidence in a Norwegian county. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004; 83: 989-94. PubMed
  5. Johnson E, Carlsen E, Mjåland O, Stien R. Sekundær sfinkterplastikk ved anal inkontinens etter fødsel. Tidsskr Nor Lægeforen 2003; 123: 2443-4. Tidsskriftet
  6. Sultan AH, Monga AK, Kumar D, Stanton SL. Primary repair of obstetric anal sphincter rupture using the overlap technique. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1999; 106: 318 - 23. PubMed
  7. Dehli T, Norderval S, Lindsetmo R-O, Vonen B. Utredning av anal inkontinens hos voksne. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2008; 128: 1670-2. Tidsskriftet
  8. Vaizey CJ, Kamm MA, Bartram CI. Primary degeneration of the internal anal sphincter as a cause of passive faecal incontinence. Lancet 1997;349: 612-5. PubMed
  9. Sultan AH, Kamm MA, Hudson CN, Thomas JM, Bartram CI. Anal-sphincter disruption during vaginal delivery. N Engl J Med 1993;329: 1905-11. NEJM
  10. Sultan AH, Kamm MA, Hudson CN, Bartram CI. Third degree obstetric anal sphincter tears: risk factors and outcome of primary repair. BMJ 1994;308: 887-91. BMJ
  11. Oberwalder M, Connor J, Wexner SD. Meta-analysis to determine the incidence of obstetric and sphincter damage. Br J Surg. 2003; 90: 1333-7. PubMed
  12. Potter J, Norton C, Cottenden A, eds. Bowel care in older people. Research and practice. London: Royal College of Physicians of London, 2002.
  13. Chassagne P, Landrin I, Neveu C, et al: Fecal incontonence in the institutionalized elderly: incidence, risk factors, and prognosis: Am J Med 1999 Feb;106(2):185-90
  14. Rockwood TH, Church JM, Fleshman JW, Kane RL, Mavrantonis C, Thorson AG, et al. Fecal incontinence quality of life scale: quality of life instrument for patients with fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum 2000; 43: 9-16. PubMed
  15. Law PJ, Kamm MA, Bartram CI. Anal endosonography in the investigation of faecal incontinence. Br J Surg 1991;78: 312-4. PubMed
  16. Felt-Bersma RJ, Cazemier M. Endosonography in anorectal disease: an overview. Scand J Gastroenterol 2006; Suppl: 165-74.
  17. Morren GL, Beets-Tan RG, van Engelshoven JM. Anatomy of the anal canal and perianal structures as defined by phased-array magnetic resonance imaging. Br J Surg 2001; 88: 1506-12. PubMed
  18. Malouf AJ, Williams AB, Halligan S, Bartram CI, Dhillon S, Kamm MA. Prospective assessment of accuracy of endoanal MR imaging and endosonography in patients with fecal incontinence. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2000; 175: 741-45. PubMed
  19. Madoff RD, Parker SC, Varma MG, Lowry AC. Faecal incontinence in adults. Lancet 2004; 364: 621-32. PubMed
  20. Dehli T, Lindsetmo R-O, Mevik K, Vonen B. Anal inkontinens - utprøvning av ny behandlingsmetode. Tidsskr Nor Lægeforen 2007; 127: 2934-6. Tidsskriftet
  21. Hallgren T, Fasth S, Delbro DS, Nordgren S, Oresland T, Hulten L. Loperamide improves anal sphincter function and continence after restorative proctocolectomy. Dig Dis Sci 1994; 39: 2612-18. PubMed
  22. Cheetham, Kamm MA, Phillips RKS. Topical phenylephrine increases anal canal resting pressure in patients with faecal incontinence. Gut 2001;48: 356-9. Gut
  23. Carapeti EA, Kamm MA, Phillips RK. Randomized controlled trial of topical phenylephrine in the treatment of faecal incontinence. Br J Surg 2000; 87: 38-42. PubMed
  24. Norton CC, Cody JD, Hosker G. Biofeedback and/or sphincter exercises for the treatment of faecal incontinence in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 3, CD002111. Cochrane
  25. Norton C, Chelvanayagam S, Wilson-Barnett J et al. Randomized controlled trial of biofeedback for fecal incontinence. Gastroenterology 2003; 125: 1320-9. Gastro
  26. Dobben AC, Terra MP, Berghmans B et al. Functional changes after physiotherapy in fecal incontinence. Int J Colorectal Dis 2006; 21: 515-21. PubMed
  27. Enck P, Daublin G, Lubke HJ et al. Long-term efficacy of biofeedback training for fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum 1994; 37: 997-1001. PubMed
  28. Alstad B, Sahlin Y, Myrvold H E. Analpropp ved fekal inkontinens. Tidsskr Nor Lægeforen 1999; 119: 365-6 PubMed
  29. Graf W, Mellgren A, Matzel KE, et al. Efficacy of dextranomer in stabilised hyaluronic acid for treatment of faecal incontinence: a randomised, sham-controlled trial. Lancet 2011; 377: 997-1003. PubMed
  30. Rasmussen OØ, Christiansen J. Sakralnervestimulation ved analinkontinens. Ugeskr Læger 2002; 164: 3866-8. PubMed
  31. Matzel KE, Stadelmaier U, Hohenfellner M et al. Chronic sacral spinal nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence: long-term results with foramen and cuff electrodes. Dis Colon Rectum 2001; 44: 59-66. PubMed
  32. Vaizey CJ, Kamm MA, Turner IC et al. Effects of short term sacral nerve stimulation on anal and rectal function in patients with anal incontinence. Gut 1999; 44: 407-12. Gut
  33. Matzel ME, Kamm MA, Stösser M, et al. Sacral spinal nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence: multicentre study. Lancet 2004; 363: 1270-6. PubMed
  34. Hetzer FH, Hahnloser D, Clavien PA, Demartines N. Quality of life and morbidity after permanent sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence. Arch Surg 2007; 142: 8-13. PubMed
  35. Malouf AJ, Vaizey CJ, Nicholls RJ et al. Permanent sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence. Ann Surg 2000; 232: 143-8. PubMed
  36. Gilliland R, Altomare DF, Moreira H, Oliveira L, Gilliland JE, Wexner SD. Pudendal neuropathy is predictive of failure following anterior overlapping sphincteroplasty. Dis Colon Rectum 1998; 41: 1516 - 22. PubMed
  37. Buie WD, Lowry AC, Rothenberger DA, Madoff RD. Clinical rather than laboratory assessment predicts continence after anterior sphincteroplasty. Dis Colon Rectum 2001; 44: 1255 - 60. PubMed
  38. Young CJ, Mathus MN, Eyers AA, Solomon MJ. Successful overlapping anal sphincter repair. Relationship to patient age, neuropathy, and colostomy formation. Dis Colon Rectum 1998; 41: 344 - 9. PubMed
  39. Gee AS, Durdey P. Preoperative increase in neuromuscular jitter and outcome following surgery for faecal incontinence. Br J Surg 1997; 84: 1265 - 8. PubMed
  40. Malouf AJ, Norton CS, Engel AF, Nicholls RJ, Kamm MA. Long-term results of overlapping anterior anal-sphincter repair for obstetric trauma. Lancet 2000; 355: 260-5. PubMed
  41. Laurberg S. Behandling av pasienter med inkontinens for avføring. Ugeskr Læger 2002; 164: nr. 33.
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